In Alberta, teaching certificates are granted by Alberta Education.
Requirements for Teacher Certification in Alberta (Alberta Education)
Teacher Certification Information (Alberta Education)
Teacher Qualifications Service (Alberta Teachers' Association)
Ministry of Education Teacher Regulation Branch
Saskatchewan Teachers Federation
The Certificate of Qualification is an annual licence to teach in Ontario. It is issued by the Ontario College of Teachers.
Ontario College of Teachers
ECN Teacher Certification/Classification Guide
This useful guide from http://www.educationcanada.com/ not only lists contacts for each province related to certification, but also provides information the provicial body responsible for evaluating teacher qualifications and assigning the category which determines a teacher's salary.
Requirements for regular teaching licenses vary by State. However, all States require a bachelor's degree and completion of an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits as well as supervised practice teaching. Almost all States require applicants for teacher licensure to be tested for competency in basic skills such as reading, writing, teaching, and subject matter proficiency.
Jurisdiction Information from The National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC)
The NASDTEC Knowledge Base replaced the NASDTEC Manual on the Preparation and Certification of Educational Personnel in 2004.
Also check the book: Requirements for Certification of Teachers, Counselors, Librarians, and Administrators for Elementary and Secondary Schools (University of Chicago Press)